The Top Oil Producing Countries: Where Does Our Oil Come From?
Crude oil affects just about every aspect of the global economy, from consumer goods production and transportation to prices and inflation. However, oil resources are not distributed evenly across the globe: The five top oil producing countries account for more than 53% of the global oil production, while the Middle East has around 65% of the world’s proven reserves.
With an oil-rich minority holding the reins, oil prices are rising as supply fails to keep pace with demand, a trend that could affect economies worldwide and fuel climate change.
A Quick Look Back: The World Before Oil
The 19th century was a period of great and rapid change that left an indelible mark on the world. The iron and steel industries spawned new construction materials. Railroads connected cities and towns across countries. All that was left was to wait for the arrival of a new source of fuel.
The discovery of the Spindletop geyser in 1901 was that defining moment. This new fuel source drove huge growth in the oil industry and allowed the US to become one of the largest oil producers.
Very soon, oil became the dominant fuel of the 20th century and an integral part of the American economy. Before the Industrial Revolution, agricultural staples like corn and wheat ruled the commodity market. These days, the world’s oil and its derivatives are the most actively traded commodities on the planet.
Before we take a deeper look at the oil industry, let’s start with some basic terminology.
What Is Crude Oil?
Crude petroleum can be refined to produce many of the products we use every day, including gasoline, diesel, and a multitude of petrochemicals. In fact, less than half of a 42-gallon barrel of oil actually goes toward fuel production. The rest of it is used in the production of consumer goods like plastic, synthetic textiles, computers, cosmetics, and even steel.
Crude oil is not only valuable because of its versatility, it’s also a nonrenewable resource, which means there’s only a finite amount of it to go around.
In the financial sense, oil is a “fungible” commodity. In other words, specific grades of oil are identical for oil trading purposes, no matter which of the world’s oil reserves it comes from. For instance, 1,000 barrels of WTI crude oil is considered exactly the same product whether it was extracted in Texas or Pennsylvania.
Oil supply and demand play a major role in pricing. Nowadays, the global mobility of resources levels out some of the natural price pressures that occur when oil is in short supply. The emergence of new resources - like the Canadian oil sands and US shale oil - may also help with this.
What Are Shale Oil and Fracking?
You might not have stumbled across the term shale oil, but chances are you’ve heard about hydraulic fracturing or “fracking.” So, what is shale fracking, and why has this process raised so many eyebrows? Shale oil fracking is the process of obtaining shale oil, the high-quality crude oil that lies between layers of shale rock.
Oil producers extract shale oil by fracturing those layers of rock. Afterward, they pump high-pressure bursts of water, sand, and chemicals into the ground to hit targeted spots.
There have been many concerns when it comes to the shale oil fracking process, since it includes drilling down as far as two miles where those layers exist. One of the concerns is the fact that fracking uses a lot of natural resources.
Before the first drop of oil is extracted, frackers must pump over 800 truckloads of water into the hole. There are hundreds of truckloads of other materials involved in the process, too.
Perhaps the scariest thing, though, is that fracking consequences remain unknown since frackers don’t have to comply with the Safe Drinking Water Act. This means that even the top oil producing countries in the world have no idea what effect these chemicals could have on the water.
Most of the water that gets pumped in returns to the surface. However, that water is now contaminated by unknown underground chemicals, which in some cases includes trace amounts of radioactive materials. Many scientists around the world are studying the long-term impact this water has on the environment, but activists are rightfully concerned.
The World Energy Congress has estimated the world’s total shale oil reserves at a little over six trillion barrels, given that the world’s other oil reserves are believed to amount to 1.7 trillion barrels.
OPEC: Changing the World
Up until the middle of the 20th century, the United States was on the list of top ten oil producing countries and, thus, controlled a large share of the global oil market. However, this changed on September 10, 1960, when the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was established at a conference in Baghdad, Iraq.
The founding members of this organization included Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela. These countries agreed that they needed to create an organization that could bring some degree of stability to the oil market. OPEC agreed to coordinate energy policies and ensure a fair price and steady supply to the countries of the world.
The establishment of OPEC occurred at a time of great transition in the international economic and political landscape. At that time, the international oil market was completely controlled by the “Seven Sisters,” a group of multinational companies that operated the majority of oil fields around the world.
As soon as OPEC took over the world oil market, a battle broke out over export limits. Each country wanted to export as much as possible, flooding the market with cheap oil, which completely decreased the price of crude.
This came to a head during the Six-Day War in 1967, when Israel launched a preemptive military strike against its Arab neighbors, resulting in many Middle Eastern OPEC members wanting to boycott Israel. The embargo failed because Venezuela and Iran didn’t support it.
Although the consequences of this event were felt in the following years, the organization continued to work without major obstacles.
In 1968, OPEC released the Declaratory Statement of Petroleum Policy in Member Countries, which was created to enshrine the right of every country to have complete sovereignty over its natural resources.
Many of the OPEC countries used to be colonies that had a hard time fighting back against the control of big oil companies based in wealthier countries. OPEC, therefore, believed the top oil-producing countries should have control over their own oil.
By the 1970s, OPEC was supplying 56% of the world net daily target, an increase from 47% in 1965. However, in 1973, Egypt and Syria launched an attack against Israel, known as the Yom Kippur War. The US intervened on behalf of Israel. Aside from the violence, the war also had terrible consequences for the global economy.
The US supplied Israel with weapons, angering OPEC Arab members, who responded with an embargo on oil sales to the US, Canada, Japan, the Netherlands, and the UK. The tightening of supply resulted in a sharp rise in prices, which in turn affected global energy consumption.
This embargo highlighted a global shift in political and economic power as people wondered what OPEC members were capable of. It was made clear that they actually had the power to influence countries by manipulating oil supplies.
While OPEC countries didn’t have a monopoly over the oil market per se, they still controlled the largest oil reserves, meaning their lack of cooperation would be felt around the world.
This decade began with concerns that crude petroleum would become scarce very soon, and these predictions drove the search for alternative energy sources.
OPEC countries tried to mitigate rising prices by introducing other fuel sources such as coal, nuclear power, and natural gas. Many studies were undertaken to encourage the switch from crude to the use of nuclear power in the top countries producing oil.
The Iranian Revolution in 1979 and the subsequent Iran-Iraq war, which took place between 1980 and 1988, resulted in a limited supply of oil coming from Iran. By July 1980, the price of oil was around $35 per barrel, more than double the 1978 price of $14.57.
Moreover, many second-world countries began to burn coal as a way of avoiding now-expensive oil. Advances in the North Sea resulted in a massive increase in production and, by 1973, the USSR had become the world’s top oil producer, thus eating into OPEC’s share of the market.
In response, the top producing countries in OPEC started to lose control of the monopoly they had created. OPEC was now forced to raise prices and place a cap on output. This was done in the hope that limiting the supply would cause the price to rise.
The quota was set at $17.5 million barrels per day. However, some OPEC countries were strongly against this limit. Both Saudi Arabia and Iran produced more than their daily allowance in an attempt to capitalize on the void left by lower production in other countries.
Even though the oil price OPEC determined did rise, the market was set for another crash. In 1986, oversupply caused the price of oil to drop. The rally in oil prices helped revive revenues, but the prices did not recover to those pre-1986 highs.
After the end of the Iran-Iraq War, the top oil producing countries in the world, including OPEC, experienced another brief period of stability and growth. But in 1989, the USSR split into a number of republics, leading to a major disruption in that country’s once-stable oil production.
Soon enough, Iraq invaded Kuwait and demanded that OPEC reconsider its production caps. This was because Iraq was struggling to rebuild and wanted to increase export earnings through oil.
During this decade, both Ecuador and Gabon left OPEC in 1992 and 1995, respectively, seeking a release from the terms of the organization so they could increase their oil production. Both have since rejoined.
As usual, OPEC made sure that consumers never ran out of crude oil. Between 1999 and 2008, the average annual production increased by 14%. Additionally, by 2010, the world’s proven crude oil reserves were 1.46 trillion barrels.
The US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003 caused another drop in supply, but other OPEC countries, especially Saudi Arabia, were able to make up the difference.
In July 2008, a rise in demand from China drove oil prices to reach $150 per barrel. An emergency OPEC meeting ended with Saudi Arabia agreeing to increase production in an attempt to saturate the market and bring prices back down.
A major oversupply of crude oil, known as the 2010s oil glut, began in 2014. The market appeared to be oversupplied by at least two million barrels per day at the time, and the easing of international sanctions on Iran was expected to increase OPEC supplies even further.
Global oversupply was also caused by significant shale oil production in the United States and Canada, geopolitical competition among the top oil-producing countries, declining commodity demand, tensions between China and the US, and potential long-term demand restraint as environmental policy encourages fuel efficiency and shifts an increasing proportion of energy consumption away from fossil fuels.
This led to prices falling below $30 by January 2016. By October 2018, prices returned to pre-2015 levels, reaching $81.03 per barrel. However, worries about the state of the world economy and the rapidly growing shale supply soon took hold, which caused a decline in prices.
The Current State of Oil Production
The current state of oil production is a complex and ever-changing landscape. The world’s oil supply and production are in a state of constant flux due to developments such as political unrest, new technologies, and environmental concerns. This has made it difficult for producers to maintain a consistent production level and has resulted in wide swings in prices.
In recent years, the rise of shale oil production has added another layer of complexity to the oil market. Shale production is notoriously difficult to predict and control, which has made it challenging for analysts to accurately forecast future trends.
The COVID-19 pandemic affected every facet of daily life. Because the pandemic hurt global production and the energy industry, countries were put under pressure to take decisive steps to stop the virus from spreading and lessen its effects.
Demand for oil fell, and there was widespread volatility. Because of this, OPEC and its Declaration of Cooperation allies made the biggest and longest-lasting changes to oil production. This motivated them to step up their joint efforts to restore the market’s stability.
The ongoing Russo-Ukrainian war led to sanctions against Russia, which drove Russian oil and gas further away from European consumers. As a result of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the US’s decision to stop buying oil from Russia, a top oil producing country, oil prices hit their highest level in a decade in March 2022.
As the price of energy worldwide keeps rising and Western countries try to get less energy from Russia, India and China have been buying more and more cheap Russian oil.
But the European Union has said it will cut its reliance on Russian gas by two-thirds over the next year. Member states have promised to reduce gas use by 15% during the next seven months to assist it in achieving that target.
In June, the European Union passed sanctions that will make it illegal to import petroleum products from Russia after February 2023 and to ship crude oil by sea after December. Because of these rules, EU companies can’t help third parties ship oil from Russia by providing financing, insuring, or acting as a broker.
According to US Treasury officials, the EU embargo may cause Russia’s shipments to drop by three to five million barrels per day, which would result in a sharp price increase.
Oil Production by Country
Apart from the founding members, OPEC was later joined by Qatar, Indonesia, Libya, the United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Nigeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Angola, Equatorial Guinea, and Congo.
Today, OPEC has 13 members. This list of top oil producing countries includes Algeria, Angola, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, the Republic of the Congo, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela.
Oil production is measured in barrels per day (B/D). This is a head count of how many barrels a country fills with oil on a daily basis. So, what are the top oil-producing countries? The following segment will go into detail about the amount of oil these countries are responsible for producing and explore other details relevant to global oil production.
Here’s a table with the top five world oil producers in 2021:
Production in millions of barrels of petroleum per day
Did You Know
The top five US states for crude oil production in 2021 and their percentage contributions to total US crude oil output were:
- Texas 42.4%
- New Mexico 11.1%
- North Dakota 9.9%
- Alaska 3.9%
- Colorado 3.7%
Oil Prices Over the Years: Unpredictable Variations
Since the early days of the oil industry, the price of crude oil has been notoriously volatile. Prices have been known to swing wildly from month to month, and even year to year. This unpredictability can make it difficult for businesses and consumers alike to budget for their energy needs.
What Affects Oil Prices?
Oil prices are determined by a variety of factors, some of the most important being production levels, geopolitical stability, and global demand. In recent years, production levels have been relatively stable, with only small fluctuations in response to changes in demand.
However, geopolitical instability can have a significant impact on oil prices. For example, tensions between major oil-producing countries can lead to production disruptions, while conflict along major transit routes can disrupt the flow of crude oil to refineries.
Global demand is also an important factor affecting oil prices. As developing economies continue to grow, not only top countries for producing oil are turning to Liquid Gold as a source of energy. This growing demand has put upward pressure on oil prices.
The sentiment is the other important factor that has an impact on oil prices. The expectation that oil demand will rise sharply at some point in the future can cause speculators and hedgers to buy up oil futures contracts, driving up oil prices now.
Despite the challenges posed by these fluctuations, businesses and consumers have generally been able to adapt over time. For example, many companies now use hedging strategies to protect themselves from sharp price increases. And as consumers become more aware of the risks posed by volatile oil prices, they may be more likely to seek out alternative energy sources.
In this way, even though oil prices will continue to be unpredictable in the years ahead, society will likely find ways to cope with this volatility.
Prices Over the Years
There are two grades of crude oil that set the benchmark for other oil prices: West Texas Intermediate (WTI), which is the yardstick for US oil prices, and Brent North Sea oil, which comes from Northwest Europe and is the benchmark for global prices. In October 2022, the average price of Brent oil was $92.17 per barrel.
Why are petroleum prices so volatile? It’s important to note that major changes in the oil industry usually revolve around four fundamental factors: US oil production, uncertainty over OPEC’s clout, the fluctuating value of the dollar, and shifts in oil demand.
Throughout its history, OPEC has tried to control the five top oil producing countries and maintain a price of around $70 per barrel. However, new challenges have arisen, especially relating to the environment. The volatility makes predicting oil prices difficult. But according to the US Energy Information Administration, in 2023, the average price of crude oil will be $95 per barrel.
Soon enough, cheap sources of oil will be exhausted, making extraction even more complicated and more expensive.
What Do Higher Oil Prices Mean for Consumers?
Oil prices are on the rise again, and that means higher costs for consumers. Oil is a relatively small part of the economy, accounting for 8% of the US GDP. Higher oil prices tend to lead to inflation, as businesses pass on their higher energy costs to consumers in the form of higher prices.
Higher inflation then leads the Federal Reserve to raise interest rates, which can further slow economic growth. During the 1970s, the relationship between inflation and oil prices was so significant that, as a result, the US economy was steered to become less dependent on oil.
Leading Oil Companies
Major oil companies across the globe, including Big O,l, have played a major role in the development of the oil industry. Let’s take a look at some of these names.
Aramco’s history goes way back to 1933, when Saudi Arabia, even then one of the largest oil producing countries, signed an oil concession agreement with the company.
Saudi Aramco has both upstream and downstream capabilities. Upstream oil companies are typically in charge of finding oil and getting it out of the ground. Downstream oil companies focus on refining petroleum products and getting them to customers.
Saudi Aramco’s extensive production, exploration, petrochemicals, refining, and international shipping puts it at the top of the list of the most successful oil companies in the world. In the second quarter of 2022, it generated over $48.4 billion in profit, up from $25.5 billion in the same period the previous year.
Unlike other major oil companies, Saudi Aramco’s revenue streams are tied to a single country. This gives it the power to set production levels, tax the country, and get involved in politics in a not-so-subtle way.
Sinopec (China National Petroleum Corporation)
Sinopec is a petroleum and petrochemical enterprise group focused on exploration, production, refining, and oil distribution. Established in 1998, Sinopec is a state-owned Chinese oil company based in Beijing.
Its operating revenue of ¥2.7 trillion ($372.5 billion) in 2021 is nothing short of astounding. Sinopec set up its distribution service by buying shares in other oil companies and drilling in parts of Africa that had not been explored before.
However, Sinopec’s actions have been heavily criticized over the years, mainly for exploiting and damaging the environment in oil-rich countries. The best-known example of this is the company’s exploration of Gabon’s Loango National Park.
After the merger of Exxon and Mobil in 1998, the US multinational oil and gas company secured its spot as one of the largest refiners in the world. It’s headquartered in Texas, one of the richest oil areas in the United States.
As a company that came from Standard Oil, ExxonMobil went from selling kerosene in a small area to becoming one of the largest publicly traded oil and gas companies.
Unfortunately, its public profile as one of the biggest oil companies was tarnished after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, in which over 10.8 million gallons of crude oil were spilled into the ocean. This remains one of the most devastating environmental disasters in human history.
How Much Oil Is Left: A Look at the Reserves
We can’t discuss oil production without wondering how much of this nonrenewable resource we have left. The top 10 countries with the largest oil reserves, in thousand million barrels, are:
Proven oil reserves: 303.8 billion barrels
It’s hard to believe that one of the largest oil producers in the world is a nation that has been brought to its knees by an explosive political crisis. Despite the chaos, Venezuela has more proven crude oil reserves than any other country in the world.
The country holds over 303.8 billion barrels worth of oil, which is nearly 18% of global reserves.
Proven oil reserves: 297.5 billion barrels
However, the country is no longer the world leader when it comes to oil reserves and production rates. So, how much oil does Saudi Arabia have?
Even though Saudi Arabia oil reserves are not as large as Venezuela’s, the country’s cutting-edge oil-extraction methods and the accessibility of those oil reserves put it far ahead of its South American competitor.
Given that Saudi Arabia has 297.5 billion barrels in reserves, it’s no surprise the country is heavily dependent on its oil industry. In fact, Saudi Arabia makes more than 11 million barrels per day, which is 17.2% of the world’s oil supply.
There are many who believe that, with advanced exploration methods and the development of Saudi Arabia’s oil production, the country will soon reclaim the top spot on the charts.
Proven oil reserves: 168.1 billion barrels
Since its oil production has climbed over the last half-decade, Canada has the potential to overtake other North American nations on the oil production charts. When it comes to proven oil reserves by country, Canada sits in third place, with around 168.1 billion barrels of oil reserves.
But the country’s economy is not based on oil. In 2021, the country exported $631 billion worth of goods, and less than 20% of that came from oil.
Proven oil reserves: 157.8 billion barrels
Iran, a founding member of OPEC, has one of the four largest oil reserves, with more than 150 billion barrels. Iran’s reserves are far more accessible than those found in Venezuela, which means they can be extracted quickly and efficiently.
Interestingly, even though Iran has been one of the top oil producing countries since 1905, it still hasn’t depleted its rich energy resources. At its current production rate, Iran remains one of the world’s largest oil producers.
Proven oil reserves: 145 billion barrels
Iraq also has some of the world’s biggest oil reserves, even though it, like many of its Middle Eastern neighbors, has been devastated by war and political instability over recent decades. These conflicts have resulted in an extremely poor and imbalanced economy that is too dependent on oil money.
Proven oil reserves: 107.8 billion barrels
Russia is rich in energy resources, most of which are located in the massive oil fields in West Siberia. The largest country in the world by landmass holds 107.8 billion barrels of proven oil reserves, securing its place among the world’s top oil producing countries.
After the collapse of the former Soviet Union, the country’s oil production slowed, and it had to overhaul its processes to improve efficiency. Along with the United States and Saudi Arabia, Russia is one of the most developed top oil producing countries, with a production rate of over 10 million barrels per day. Petroleum accounts for 40% of the nation’s exports.
Proven oil reserves: 101.5 billion barrels
Although it’s one of the smallest OPEC country members, Kuwait is one of just seven nations with oil reserves that exceed 100 billion barrels. The past few decades have been chaotic due to Iraq’s invasion in 1990. During the Iraq-Kuwait war, Iraq controlled almost half of the world’s oil supply thanks to Kuwait’s rich reserves.
Naturally, Kuwait’s global oil production recovered, and it now produces 3.15 million barrels per day. The country’s proven oil reserves stand at 101.5 billion barrels.
United Arab Emirates
Proven oil reserves: 97.8 billion barrels
The United Arab Emirates sources most of its oil from the Zakum oil field, which holds the largest proven oil reserves, an estimated 50 billion barrels. The UAE is an OPEC member state with a total of 97.8 billion barrels of reserves, making it one of the best-developed oil exporting countries.
The oil industry is extremely important to the UAE’s economy since petroleum accounts for about 30% of its gross domestic product. With the Zakum field resources, the United Arab Emirates is an attractive proposition for some of the largest oil companies in the world. Because it has disproportionately large amounts of oil in a small area, the UAE profits handsomely.
The United States
Proven oil reserves: 68.8 billion barrels
So, where does the US get most of its oil? In the United States, proven oil reserves have reached new heights in the last 10 years, mostly because of new ways to get oil and gas out of shale that were never thought of before.
Those methods have proven to be the most effective in Texas, where the US gets most of its oil, and where many oil companies are headquartered. Thanks to fracking and horizontal drilling, the USA’s strategic oil reserves reached 401.7 million barrels in October 2022.
Proven oil reserves: 48.4 billion barrels
The largest proven crude oil reserves in Africa are in Libya, which holds over 48.4 billion barrels worth of proven oil reserves. This country has the potential to become one of the world’s largest oil producers, mainly because many more oil-rich reserves have yet to be discovered.
In spite of the civil war and the consequences of the Gadhafi regime, Libya has managed to keep its status as one of the largest oil exporters in Africa.
Hopes for the Future
What happens to the oil industry is sure to be a key factor in determining the fate of humanity over the next century. The problem is not only that oil reserves are limited but also that the production of fossil fuels has an effect on the climate and environment around the world. Geopolitical struggles among the top five crude oil producing countries are as relevant now as they’ve ever been.
Trying to work out how much oil is left has always been a fool’s game. Whenever most experts think oil reserves are on the cusp of drying up, new drilling methods prove them wrong.
The 2015 Paris climate agreement seemed to be a hopeful step toward a better future when most of the top oil-producing countries committed to cutting their carbon emissions. However, the US left the Paris Agreement in November 2020.
Since then, activists, investors, and the general public have put pressure on the biggest oil companies. However, many experts still doubt that the biggest oil companies will make the changes needed to clean up the industry. In 2020, 79% of total energy consumption in the US came from fossil fuels.
It is thought that using longer-lasting batteries, electric cars, artificial intelligence, and robotics in oil production could make the process more efficient, reduce the damage the industry does to the environment, and protect the world’s largest oil reserves.
However, many people doubt that this will happen quickly enough to achieve the goal of limiting global warming to well below two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.
A balanced energy future that uses both current and future technologies could be the key to lowering the effects of greenhouse gas emissions and keeping the world’s standard of living. Whatever happens, the top oil-producing countries in the world will have plenty to think about over the coming decade.
What are the top 10 oil producing countries?
The list of the top ten oil producing countries in 2022 looks like this:
- United States
- Saudi Arabia
- United Arab Emirates
Which country has highest oil production?
The country with the highest oil production is the United States, which churns out more than 18,875,000 barrels per day.
What country has the most oil in 2022?
Venezuela is the country with the most crude oil reserves in the world with 303.8 billion barrels, which makes up 17.5% of total oil reserves in the world.
Which country has the best quality of crude oil in the world?
The best-quality crude oil is Tapis crude, found in Malaysia. This crude oil is used as a pricing benchmark in Singapore.
Does the US buy oil from Venezuela?
The United States was once Venezuela’s biggest buyer of crude oil. However, US imports of Venezuelan crude oil collapsed to zero in 2018, when the US introduced sanctions against Venezuela’s oil sector.
Where does Russia get its oil from?
Russia is among the top oil producing countries, with a reported production of 10,778,000 barrels per day in 2021.
Where does Russia get its oil from?
The majority of Russia’s oil and gas reserves are located in Siberia, while production facilities are spread across the country. Russia is among the top oil producing countries, with a reported production of 10,778,000 barrels per day in 2021.
Does China produce any oil?
Yes. Even though China imports a large share of its petroleum products, the country itself produces 4,993,000 barrels per day. In 2021, China imported nearly 81 million metric tons of crude oil from Saudi Arabia.
Who runs OPEC?
Haitham al-Ghais of Kuwait is the current Secretary General of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). OPEC is controlled by 13 oil-rich countries that have influence over the world’s energy supply.
What is the best quality oil?
The best crude oil is found in Malaysia, but there’s not much of it. When it comes to the top oil producing countries, Saudi Arabia is known for offering the best quality crude oil.
Does the US produce more oil than Saudi Arabia?
Yes, according to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), as of 2021, the US produced 18.88 million barrels per day while the same timeframe put Saudi Arabia among the top oil producing countries in the Middle East, with 10.84 million.
For years, the clients I worked for were banks. That gave me an insider’s view of how banks and other institutions create financial products and services. Then I entered the world of journalism. Fortunly is the result of our fantastic team’s hard work. I use the knowledge I acquired as a bank copywriter to create valuable content that will help you make the best possible financial decisions.
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